Sample Size

How to Design a Survey Form (Easy 7 Step Process)

Here’s the truth, answering surveys are not on the list of anyone’s most favorite thing to do- and without a good survey design your survey form might just end up in someone’s trash bin. The good news is, survey design is not rocket science, and it takes only a handful of simple steps and principles for you to make those dull couple of minutes of your respondents time a little bearable. So, if you’re ready to create a survey form that will actually be filled out by your desired respondents- check out this non-complicated 7-step process:

  • Step 1- Determine the research goals and list of objectives.
  • Step 2- Think about how you can keep your respondents honest and accurate.
  • Step 3- Keep in mind important Survey Principles before creating your questions.
  • Step 4- Structure questions that will produce all of the information you need.
  • Step 5- Create your Survey Form introduction.
  • Step 6- Select Survey Respondents sample size.
  • Step 7- Choose the best method to collect information.

 

Step 1 – Determine the research goals and list of objectives.

Once the survey questions are finished, review questions to ensure the data will answer your research goals and list of objectives. Eliminate questions that do not contribute to the end-goal and have a colleague review to validate your thoughts and ensure questions are not confusing.  

 

Step 2 – Think about how you can keep your respondents honest and accurate.

  • a. If needed, give respondents the option of being anonymous. Some respondents might be hesitant in providing their most honest answer because of embarrassment, fear of judgment or reprimand.
  • b. Do not use too technical terms that might confuse your respondents. Choose the language that mirrors how the respondents truly think and talk regarding the topic.
  • c. Put easier questions first. Allow respondents time to become comfortable in answering the survey, in doing so, they will more likely answer the complex questions later.
  • d. Keep the survey short and simple. Consequently, this will ensure a higher response rate and limit survey fatigue. 


 

Step 3 – Keep in mind key Survey Principles before creating your questions.

  • a.  Make sure each question is focused and designed for specific feedback.
    • Don’t use double-barrel questions: “How do you feel about our products and services?”
    • Instead, separate them into two questions: “How do you feel about our product?” and “How do you feel about our services?” These will provide an equal focus on both subjects.
  • b.  Questions should be grouped or ordered according to the subject.
  • c. Questions should be consistent.
    • For example: If you start with 1=low and 5=high, stick with that format.
  • d. Questions should be precise. Use actual numbers. Avoid generic answer choices like “sometimes” and “rarely” in the survey form.
    • For example: “more than 3 times per week”
  • e. Questions should be balanced. The number of positive and negative options should be equal.
  • f. Questions should be complete. Include all possible answers, and make sure there is no overlap between answer options.
  • g. Questions should be bias-free. Construct the questions as objectively as possible.
    • Avoid leading questions: “Can you see why this product was voted best in customer service?”
    • Instead, ask how they would describe their satisfaction level: “Please rate your satisfaction level in using this product.

 

Step 4 – Structure questions that will answer all of the information you need.

  • Survey questions fall into two categories:
    • a. Structured or fixed response –  respondents choose from a provided list of answer options.
    • b. Non-structured or open-ended – respondents can fill in their own text or numeric answer.

Common Question Types:

  • a. Multiple Choice – These are questions with two or more answer options and is the most basic type of questions since respondents are limited to choices from the multiple answer options.  These are useful for collecting all kinds of demographic data.
  • b. Rating Scales – Rating scales ask respondents to rate how much they agree with a certain statement using a common scale (e.g. 1 to 5, where 1=low and 5=high). These are useful for gauging respondents opinions, attitudes, and behaviors.
  • c. Open-Ended Questions – These are questions with no provided answers options. Respondents answer by writing in their own text. These are great for eliciting responses about attitudes and opinions in a respondent’s own words or having them provide a numeric answer without a suggested range.

If you want to learn more about these question types check out our post on How to Write Great Survey Questions.

 

Step 5 – Create your survey form introduction.

  • a. Advise users of their privacy
  • b. Tell respondents how the data will be used
  • c. Don’t ask personal questions unless necessary
  • d. Give Clear instructions for completing the survey and how long it will take
  • e. If offered, clearly describe incentive to increase the response rate.

 

Step 6 – Select Survey Respondents Sample Size.

  • a. Target population and desired accuracy level will be the basis in choosing the sample size. Target Population is the total number of people you want to understand.
    • For example, you’re doing an employee satisfaction survey, and the company has 1000 employees; then 1000 is the population.
  • b. The Margin of Error – is how much error you can risk. Meaning if you have a margin of error of 5%, and the result of the survey show’s 90% of the employees are happy- 85%-95% is the actual number. Simply, 5% is added and deducted on both ends.
  • c. Confidence Level – reflects that the respondents you chose mattered in the results you got. 95% Confidence interval means that you would get the same result 95% of the time and is the most commonly used.

From the chart table, you can determine your target population and then select the margin of error.

 

Population      

Margin of Error

     Confidence Interval
10% 5% 1%       90% 95% 99%
100 50 80 99        74 80 88
500 81 218 476        176 218 286
1,000 88 278 906        215 278 400
10,000 96 370 4,900        264 370 623
100,000 96 383 8,763        270 383 660
1,000,000+ 97 384 9,513        271 384 664

 

Check out this link for The DataForce Sample Size Calculator

 

Step 7 – Choose the best method to collect information.

Below are the most common types of survey distribution. Each survey method has its pros and cons that are affected by the budget, convenience, quality, and other considerations.

  • a. Online Survey– Services like Google Forms, Survey Monkey, Zoomerang, and many others have made online questionnaires very convenient to design and send. You can also use social media or your website to invite people to take surveys. An online survey is the most simple and cheapest survey to manage.
  • b. Face to Face or Telephone Interview – You have to create a script and train people for this kind of survey. This survey requires more effort and budget; however, you get in-depth answers that are most genuine.
  • c. Mail Survey– Despite being old school and having less control, many still opt to use mail survey because it offers visual quality, looks professional, easy to administer, and not particularly costly.

Take note that you don’t have to choose one. In fact, for best results, it is encouraged to use several modes for survey administration.

Finally, you now have an actionable step-by-step process on how to create your survey form, including guiding principles to structure your questionnaire.  You’re on your way to producing a survey form that will deliver the quality data you need to make that outstanding research. But, perhaps you want to learn more about how to budget for your survey.

Check out this link on Overcoming Survey Budgeting Challenges

For more information on survey design or any aspect of mail survey management, contact us today! We provide outstanding Quantitative Data Collection Services and Paper Scanning Services!

Choosing the Right Sample Size

Choosing the right sample size is vital to accurate survey outcomes. With the right number of survey respondents, your target population will be represented with acceptable accuracy.  Although it may seem like a simple undertaking, you must put a lot of thought into determining your survey’s most effective sample size.

In most cases, the larger your sample size, the more confident you can be that the responses you receive reflect the total target population. However, there is another side to that coin. Deciding on a larger sample size requires you to distribute more surveys, and that drives up the cost of your survey project.  

It’s not as simple as randomly selecting a large sample size and assuming that will equate to successful response rates. The pitfall of using no forethought when selecting a sample size is that you may select a sample that is not statistically significant or will cause you to exceed your budget. To arrive at your optimum sample size, you must start by asking a few key questions.

1. How Large Is Your Target Population?

Choosing the Right Sample Size - How large is Your Target Population

You can begin to understand your sample size needs by first determining the size of the total population of possible respondents. If you want to understand something more large-scale, such as how grocery shoppers are using mobile devices, you will need to use a larger sample size. That’s because there are millions of grocery shoppers who use mobile devices. On the other hand, if you want to assess a smaller, more specific group, such as the opinions of the faculty at a particular university, the population is limited to a few thousand or even a few hundred.

2. How Accurate Do You Need to Be in Choosing the Right Sample Size?

Because you are only using a small sample group out of a larger target population, you must now make some decisions about accuracy. Your accuracy will depend on choosing an acceptable margin of error and accepted confidence level.  

Your margin of error measures how well the responses from your sample reflect the opinions of your entire target population. A commonly chosen margin of error is 5%. You must also keep in mind that lower margins of error require a larger sample size.

Your confidence level represents the degree to which your sample is an accurate sample of the population. If you decide your project requires a 95% confidence level, you are declaring that if you repeated your survey, you would get the same results 95% of the time. Higher confidence levels require a larger sample size.

3. What Is Your Expected Response Rate?

Arriving at an answer to the first two questions is relatively straightforward. First, determine the size of your target population. Then decide how accurate you want your survey results to be.

Now, on to the challenging part: estimating what your response rate will be. Estimating your response rate is often difficult; there are many factors that contribute to a respondent’s decision to complete and return your survey. The list of factors includes:

    • Questionnaire length
    • Question complexity
    • Importance of the survey to the respondent
    • Level of respondent interest in the survey
    • Availability of incentives

Fortunately, you are in control of most of these factors. Depending on your target population and the decisions you make about how you will administer your survey, your response rate can range from 1% to 60%. Lower expected response rates require a larger sample size.

For more tips on Survey Design, check our blog post on How to Write Great Survey Questions

Working with an Experienced Survey Administration Partner in Choosing the Right Sample Size

Your sample size has a direct impact on the validity and cost of your survey. Consequently, it’s crucial that you get that number right. Once you have determined the right sample size for your survey, there’s still more work to do. How will you distribute the surveys? How will you gather them and analyze the outcomes?  

This is where your survey administration partner can add value to the process. When you work with an experienced vendor, they can consult with you about the nature of your survey research and suggest choices that will help you achieve your goals in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

Your partner can help you measure your target population and decide on an appropriate margin of error and confidence level. In addition—although no two survey projects are ever exactly alike—your partner can rely on their experience with working with a wide range of organizations and projects to help predict what your response rate might be.

When you are planning your next survey project—and trying to understand your optimal sample size—consider getting help from an experienced survey administration partner.

If you’d like more information on incentives, project consulting services, survey research services, incentive fulfillment or survey mailing services in general, contact us today!

By |2019-05-24T19:47:16+00:00March 6th, 2018|Survey Research Services|0 Comments